Inside Modutech Marine’s Work Boat Medium
The U.S. Navy has some spectacular vessels, from submarines to high speed RIBs. They also have dedicated ports and support facilities worldwide. A practical reality of all of this is that the Navy requires efficient and handy boats to support the warhorses. To meet this requirement John Myers of the naval architect firm Hockema & Whalen and Associates have developed a 30 by 15-foot tug with a 5.5-foot draft. Currently the Navy has 24 of these tugs, designated Work Boat Medium, on order from Modutech Marine Inc. of Tacoma, Wash.
Wärtsilä Supplies Propulsion for Fishing Vessel
Lunar Fishing Company Ltd, based in Scotland, is replacing its existing Lunar Bow purse seiner trawler with a new ship having the same name. The primary considerations were to achieve both economic and environmental benefits through selecting the market’s most efficient propulsion machinery. The vessel is being built at the Karstensens Skibsvaerft shipyard in Denmark and will feature a fully integrated propulsion solution from Wärtsilä. The main engine chosen is the Wärtsilä 31, listed by Guinness World Records as being the world’s most efficient four-stroke diesel engine.
Dellner to Expanded Product Range to US Market
Dellner Brakes, fresh off acquiring U.S. brake and clutch specialist Gummi USA, said it will present its expanded range of power transmission products to the U.S. marine market at the International Workboat Show (IWBS) from November 29 to December 1. Since the acquisition announced in September, the enlarged business is already starting to work together under one umbrella and the company’s U.S. stock and distribution operations have been consolidated to the Dellner Brakes Gummi USA facility in Houston.
Arneson Surface Drives Enhanced with Master Trim
Twin Disc, manufacturer of technologically advanced marine transmissions, has announced an expansion to its line of Arneson Surface Drives. Select models of the innovative propulsion solution now interface with MasterTrim, an automated trim control system. The device is debuting at the Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show, Nov. 1–5. By use of exacting sensors, the programmable MasterTrim control system automatically adjusts the position of Arneson Surface Drives and trim tabs or interceptors for maximum efficiency and performance.
WESMAR to Showcase New Stabilizer Technology
WESMAR said it will display its stabilizers, thrusters, sonar and hydraulics at the 58th Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show November 1 to 5, 2017. Held in what is known as the “Yachting Capital of the World,” the exhibition covers an area 9-miles-long and draws visitors from around the world. “As boat values continue to increase and moorage and dock space become more crowded, WESMAR products have become among the most important equipment owners and captains have come to rely on,” said Bob Sentz, WESMAR Vice President.
Twiflex: Turning, Locking & Braking System
Regular maintenance of propulsion shafts and propellers requires shafts to be aligned and locked in place so that ships’ engineers can perform the needed work. A Turning, Locking & Braking (TLB) System from Twiflex Ltd. provides a compact solution to allow the shaft position to be set and locked when the vessel is stationary. The Twiflex TLB consolidates three usually separate interfaces and functions into one design package. The modular TLB system is configured to allow customers to select and install one of the turning…
ZF Marine Opens New North America Commercial Craft Center of Competence
The new facility has dedicated transmission and thruster repair facilities, and larger warehouse and training areas. ZF Marine has a long standing presence in Louisiana, opening their first location in the city of St. Rose in 1996. The ever increasing customer base combined with the addition of the commercial thruster product line in 2009 resulted in the need to create a larger physical presence in the region. A comprehensive search of the region resulted in ZF finding a new home at 677 Time Saver Avenue in Elmwood, Louisiana.
Siemens to Build Wärtsilä Marine Gear Boxes
Wärtsilä and Flender (Siemens AG, Mechanical Drives) have reached an agreement that will transfer the assembly and testing of Wärtsilä's marine gear box portfolio to the Siemens Mechanical Drives facilities in Voerde, Germany. In announcing the deal, Wärtsilä said the new arrangement takes advantage of synergies with processes developed at the Siemens plant to secure the quality and delivery punctuality of the gear boxes, thus providing greater customer value. Wärtsilä said it will retain responsibility for the design and technical specifications…
RSC Bio Solutions Gains Kawasaki OEM Approvals
RSC Bio Solutions, a provider of high performance Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants (EALs) - hydraulic fluids, gear oils and greases - and industrial cleaners and solvents, said it has received OEM approvals for use in Kawasaki Heavy Industries’ Controllable Pitch Propellers (CPP) and side thrusters. The RSC EnviroLogic HF 68 HP was approved for use in Kawasaki Controllable Pitch Propellers (CPP). RSC EnviroLogic HF 68 HP is a high performance, readily biodegradable, synthetic ISO 68 grade hydraulic fluid.
Caterpillar Develops New Propulsion System
Caterpillar Marine, partnering with Caterpillar Innovation & Technology Development Division (ITDD), is in the process of developing a proprietary advanced propulsion system for marine applications. The Cat Marine Advanced Variable Drive (AVD) is a patented system that leverages Caterpillar’s experience with heavy duty continuously variable transmission (CVT) technology, advanced controls and power system integration knowledge. In this joint development, ITDD is leading a cross…
RSC Bio Solutions’ EALs Available through Drew Marine
RSC Bio Solutions said its high performance Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants (EALs) are now available through Drew Marine’s global supply chain network, which is capable of delivering to more than 900 ports worldwide. RSC Bio Solutions and Drew Marine announced a new global marine distribution partnership that has expanded the global availability of RSC Bio Solutions’ range of EALs. RSC FUTERRA HF Series renewable hydrocarbon hydraulic fluids are Ecolabel certified and formulated to withstand extreme conditions and corrosion while operating in severe environments.
Glosten to Design Electric Ferry for Skagit County
Washington’s Skagit County has selected Seattle based naval architecture and marine engineering consultancy Glosten to design a new all-electric vehicle/passenger ferry. The new ferry will replace M/V Guemes, which has provided service between Anacortes and Guemes Island, Wash. since 1979, and is now nearing the end of its economic useful life. With a capacity of 99 passengers and 21 vehicles, the vessel forms a primary mode of transit for residents of and visitors to Guemes Island.
Bangkok’s Chao Phraya Tourist Boat
Many visitors to Bangkok will experience a ride on the Chao Phraya Express boats. These long, sleek, wooden, commuter boats, with their dramatically raked bows, are a staple of the river’s traffic. They can also be very crowded and, with many stops, a bit of a challenge to the tourist. A popular alternative is the tourist boats. These vessels have a more limited route and series of stops, all of which are near important tourist destinations such as the Grand Palace and Wat Arun, the Temple of the Dawn.
New Eco-friendly Expedition Cruise Ship in the Works
Rolls-Royce said it has signed a deal with WestSea Yard, part of Martifer Group, to equip an expeditionary oceanic cruise ship for Portuguese based cruise company Mystic Cruises. The vessel, to be called the MS World Explorer, will be the company’s first expeditionary oceanic cruise ship. The MS World Explorer will offer expeditionary cruise itineraries in Antarctica from November to March and this new vessel’s inaugural Antarctic season is already fully chartered to, and being distributed globally by, Polar Cruise Company Quark Expeditions.
First Ship with IMO Tier III EIAPP Engines Launched
The launch of the L’Astrolabe, a 72 metre polar logistics vessel fitted with a complete Wärtsilä propulsion machinery package and Wärtsilä NOR (NOx Reducer) SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) exhaust gas cleaning systems for all the main engines, took place on July 12. This is the first vessel operating with the International Maritime Organisation’s IMO Tier III EIAPP (Engine International Air Pollution Prevention) certified Wärtsilä diesel engines. The ship was built by PIRIOU (France) for the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Administration.
Volvo Penta to Power New NYPD Response Boat
The newest New York Police Department (NYPD) response boat currently under construction will be powered by Volvo Penta diesel inboard engines from Pacific Power Group, a first for the NYPD fleet. The fifth Response Boat - Medium C (RB-M C) built by Vigor will join the fleet of RB-M C’s currently providing maritime security and law enforcement in the New York metro area. The vessel, which is under construction at Vigor Ballard, is being built based on an all-aluminum design utilized on more than 174 Coast Guard response boats.
Rugged Propulsion System Designed for the Swamps
A new all-terrain vessel propulsion system specially engineered and built for operation in extreme shallow water, riverine and mud flat environments will safely and reliably propel a vessel through dense vegetation, mud and debris-strewn waters. The highly durable Swamp Shark Drive system has been introduced through a partnership between Louisiana-based boat builder Metal Shark has partnered with Angelle Development, LLC of Breaux Bridge, La. “I began designing this system and building the initial prototype in 2011 with the goal of creating the ultimate ‘go anywhere…
An Engine Oil Goes the Distance
An inspection of one of two main engines on a U.S. inland waterways vessel revealed that ExxonMobil’s Mobil Delvac 1 ESP 5W-40 diesel engine oil provided outstanding protection and cleanliness for a Cummins KTA38 marine diesel main engine after nine years of continuous use. The engine had accumulated 21,782 running hours with an initial fill of Mobil Delvac 1 ESP 5W-40 engine oil. Mobil SignumSM oil analysis was used to closely monitor the health of the engine throughout this period, with support from the ExxonMobil field engineering team.
SCHOTTEL Debuts Underwater Mountable Thruster
SCHOTTEL has expanded its portfolio with the successful tests of the 5.5 MW SRP 800 U rudderpropeller, which can be installed afloat for vessels that cannot be docked easily due to their size or area of operation. Besides application in larger offshore vessels or rigs, the new and powerful SCHOTTEL thruster is suited for cable laying vessels, offshore construction vessels and crane ships. “As a result of customer requests, SCHOTTEL decided to further develop the robust, well-proven rudderpropeller technology in the power range up to 5.5 MW…
New Push Boat Delivered to Devall Towing
The newly built M/V Jackson Scott has been delivered to owner Devall Towing and Boat Service of Hackberry, La. The Jackson Scott is a 64’ X 27’ inland push boat, powered by two fully mechanical, EPA Tier 3 engines rated 630HP @ 1,600RPM. The engines are coupled to Twin Disc MG 5222 transmissions turning four-blade 70” X 56” propellers. The M/V Jackson Scott follows four previous Devall Towboats with the same propulsion package from Laborde Products. Earlier vessels included the M/V Tug Devall, M/V Cooper Devall, M/V Aidan Devall and M/V Finili Ryanne.
Dual-fuel Escort Tug for Østensjø Rederi
The first of three new dual fuel RAstar 4000-DF class extreme escort tugs, the Dux, has been delivered to Østensjø Rederi AS by Spanish shipbuilder Astilleros Gondán S.A. Designed by Robert Allan Ltd., the 40.2 meter vessel is the first of a three boat order from Østensjø for severe weather operations at Statoil's Melkøya LNG Gas terminal at Hammerfest in the extreme north of Norway. These escort tugs will conduct approximately 300 LNG ship escorts annually, assist with berthing operations and will be maintained in readiness for emergency services such as long line towing…
SKF Launches Hydraulic Bolts for Rotating Flanges
Maintenance engineers can now demount and reassemble flanged power transmission couplings in a single-step operation using SKF's new Quickgrip Bolts. Designed for high-torque rotating flanges, the new SKF Quickgrip Bolts, as well as existing SKF Supergrip Bolts, can be used to connect two flanged shafts quickly, safely and reliably. This applies to all types of propulsion systems, as well as rudders and other critical applications. In a single tool set-up the new SKF Quickgrip Bolt provides a faster and more user-friendly alternative to other types of hydraulic and conventional bolt.
George Joins OEM Group
OEM Group said it has welcomed on board a new global business development manager as the company gears up for growth in the U.K. and internationally. The firm created the position for Jim George to support ongoing operations in Europe and the Middle East. Based at OEM Group’s Aberdeen headquarters, George will focus on all commercial matters as well as building and strengthening client relationships across all regions. George has more than four decades’ experience in the oil and…
AEGIR-Marine Adds Stabilizer Repair Services
AEGIR-Marine, full service provider for stern tube seals and propulsion systems for the maritime industry, said it has added stabilizer and steering gear repair services to its portfolio of maritime services. In February 2017 the company reinforced its team with Alan, a specialist in stabilizer engineering services. The Dutch company works with brand independent parts and provides service and parts for all major propulsion systems. AEGIR-Marine is now able to offer its ship owning customers a complete and integrated overhaul service.
First Aluminum Hull Reference for Thordon Seal
Fullers Group’s has provided a first reference for Thordon Bearings’ TG100 seal on an aluminum hulled fast ferry. The New Zealand ferry operator’s new 34.9m (114.5 ft.) catamaran Korora, delivered from the Q-West shipyard in December, features a water lubricated propeller shaft arrangement based around a Henley Integrated Propulsion System. Auckland-headquartered Henley Group, an approved Thordon distributor, with a history dating to 1917, secured the contract to design and supply Korora’s complete drivetrain…
Wärtsilä to Power Norwegian Trawler Newbuild
Wärtsilä has been awarded a contract to provide the propulsion machinery for a new purse seine fishing trawler ordered by Strand Senior AS, a subsidiary of Strand Havfiske AS based in Norway. The vessel will be built at the Karstensen Skibsvaerft shipyard in Denmark. The Wärtsilä order was booked in March 2017. In specifying that an innovative and highly efficient vessel was required, the owners specifically emphasized that the propulsion system should be centered on the Wärtsilä 31 engine.
Improve Your Bottom Line with Condition Monitoring Systems
All operators worry about the same thing – the next outage that puts your vessel out of commission. Millions of dollars are invested every year into maintenance programs. State-of-the-art condition monitoring systems like the Windrock 6400 can predict and help prevent downtime and failures. Performance monitoring can be described as the process of gathering data from machinery to assess the overall operating capacity of the system it is a part of. Data is compared either against an existing database (trending)…
Tech File: Condition Monitoring Systems
All operators worry about the same thing – the next outage that puts your vessel out of commission. Millions of dollars are invested every year into maintenance programs. State-of-the-art condition monitoring systems like the Windrock 6400 can predict and help prevent downtime and failures. Performance monitoring can be described as the process of gathering data from machinery to assess the overall operating capacity of the system it is a part of. Data is compared either against…
Tradewinds Towing Returns to Laborde for Repowers
In September of 2006, Dominique Smith of the then one tug company Tradewinds Towing came to Laborde Products, to look at the S12R engine for the repower of the Miss Lis, an Alaskan built low profile tug he planned on repowering. Later that same month, the deal was made, and shortly thereafter, the Miss Lis set sail with new Mitsubishi engines and Reintjes transmissions supplied by Laborde Products. Since then, the engines have logged over 30,000 hours travelling throughout North, Central and South America.
Gowind 2500: DCNS Creation Passes first Test
DCNS announced the success of the first sea trials of the first-of-class Gowind 2500 corvette under construction in Lorient, France by DCNS. Ten Gowind 2500 corvettes, aimed at supplementing DCNS surface vessel product range, has been ordered so far by international navies. “It is a very important moment for DCNS: the Gowind corvette designed especially for the international market is now sea proven,” said Eric Chaplet, DCNS Marketing Vice-President. “We are very proud to announce that…
Ecoshield Coating Option for ZF Thrusters
ZF Marine Krimpen is applying Subsea Industries’ Ecoshield hard coating to the nozzles and underwater components of its azimuth thruster units supplied to vessels operating in inland waterways. The Netherlands-based company, a division of Germany’s ZF Group, is using Ecoshield on thrusters supplied to a number of U.S.-based customers to reduce operational wear and tear in brown waters such as the Mississippi River. The solution was found in Antwerp, in 2015, when ZF approached…
Combination Tug & Dive Support for Peruvian Navy
The Peruvian Navy has recently taken delivery of a well-equipped dive support vessel (DSV) from the shipyard Servicios Industriales de la Marina S.A. (SIMA). Designed in-house by the shipyard, the new 4400 HP vessel has significant towing capabilities and can act as a salvage tug. The 32 by 12-meter vessel has a molded depth of 4.5 meters on a finely-shaped, double chined hull. A four point anchoring system as well as a launch and recovery system for deploying an open diving bell are among the effective salvage and dive-support deck equipmet.
Rolls-Royce Wins USCG OPC Propulsion Contract
Rolls-Royce will provide an extensive range of equipment, including MTU marine generator sets, to a new fleet of U.S. Coast Guard Offshore Patrol Cutters (USCG OPC). The Rolls-Royce equipment was selected by Eastern Shipbuilding Group (ESG) Inc. for the USCG OPC fleet’s first nine vessels, with an option to add two more. Sam Cameron, Rolls-Royce, Senior Vice President, Sales & Business Development – Naval, said: “The Offshore Patrol Cutter is the U.S. Coast Guard's largest shipbuilding…
Steel Cut for World's First LNG Cruise Liner
German shipbuilder MEYER WERFT held a steel cutting ceremony on February 21 in Papenburg marking the ceremonial start of construction for the newest cruise liner for Rostock-based cruise company AIDA Cruises. The new cruise ship will be the world’s first capable of operating completely on liquefied natural gas (LNG). Felix Eichhorn, President of AIDA Cruises, pressed the start button of the computer-controlled cutting machine to commence work on the first steel plate for the next generation of AIDA cruise ships.
Chao Phraya: A Floating Food World
For many years, the Supatra River House on the Chao Phrya River, has been a favorite with Thai and foreign dinners. Situated on the Thonburi side of the river, the most favored approach to the restaurant is by boat. To that end, the owner, Khun Supapan maintains a fleet of beautifully restored Chao Phraya River water taxis. These can pickup dinners from their riverside hotels or any one of the Express Boat docks, including Tha Maharaj pier on the Bangkok side across from the Supatra River House.
MTU Drive and Propulsion Solutions for Naval Vessels
Rolls-Royce will be showcasing its MTU drive and propulsion solutions for military vehicles and naval vessels at the IDEX and NAVDEX 2017 trade shows (Booth 09-B14). These take place simultaneously in Abu Dhabi from February 19- 23, and represent the biggest defence technology event in the Middle East and North Africa. The venue is the Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Centre in the United Arab Emirates. Rolls-Royce will be presenting the full spectrum of its MTU-brand drive and…
US Coast Guard in CRADA with Cox Powertrain
The US Coast Guard has entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with British diesel engine innovator, Cox Powertrain. The CRADA will evaluate and test the advantages, disadvantages, required technology enhancements, performance, costs and other issues associated with diesel outboard engine technology. There a been a big swell of interest in diesel outboards since NATO introduced its single fuel policy, with the military and naval forces of member countries keen to phase out petrol-fuelled outboards in favour of cleaner diesel alternatives.
Cavotec Wins Port Equipment Orders
Global engineering group Cavotec has been awarded significant orders for its innovative systems for marine propulsion, shore power supply, and crane electrification systems, with a combined value of EUR 10 million, highlighting the Group's pivotal position in the global Ports & Maritime segment. One of the largest of these orders — placed by a major crane manufacturer — is for powering and controlling advanced rail-mounted gantry cranes (RMGC) and Automatic Stacking Cranes (ASC) with motorised cable reels at two container terminals.
Protect Vessels from Marine Corrosion
For ship and vessel owners that struggle with corrosion caused by water, humidity, condensation, salt air and environmental contaminants, Force5 Marine works as corrosion inhibiter, lubricant and cleaner to protect engines and critical equipment and keep it in good working order. The harsh marine environment costs an estimated $50-80 billion in corrosion related damage worldwide, and can lead to the failure of critical equipment including engines, fittings, valves, switches, lighting, and electrical gear if not properly maintained.
Royce to Power High-speed Italian Naval Vessels
The construction of two new high-speed multipurpose vessels (UNPAV) for the Italian Navy has recently begun at Intermarine’s Sarzana shipyard. Rolls-Royce has won the contract to supply engines and waterjets to power and propel the two new vessels, which will be used by the Operational Incursion Group (Gruppo Operativo Incursori or G.O.I), the Special Forces of the Italian Navy, for maritime traffic control, combating human trafficking, counter terror and antipiracy operations and crisis evacuations.
Altra Acquires Stromag
Manufacturer and marketer of electromechanical power transmission and motion control products Altra Industrial Motion Corp. said it has closed its acquisition of the Stromag business from GKN plc. “Stromag provides Altra with complementary products, increased presence in key geographic regions and penetration into new growth end markets,” said Carl Christenson, Chairman and CEO of Altra. Stromag generated approximately 131 million euros in revenue in 2015, and the acquisition is anticipated to be accretive to Altra’s earnings in 2017, excluding any one-time or acquisition-related costs.
Lubricants: Mitigating Risk without Sacrificing Performance
A new entry to the EAL lubricant race emerges from RSC Bio Solutions. Deep roots, new technologies and familiar names create the basis for a different way of approaching marine lubricants. It isn’t surprising that RSC Bio Solutions, a provider of environmentally acceptable lubricants (EALs) and cleaners, chose the SMM 2016 trade exposition in Hamburg, Germany as the platform to launch its newest product. That’s because SMM provided an appropriately large platform for a firm that has deep roots in the chemical and degreaser markets…
Brunvoll Acquires Scana Propulsion
Brunvoll, a family-owned company headquartered in Molde, Norway, a company that designs, manufactures and services complete thruster sstems for maneuvering, positioning and propulsion of advanced vessels, this week signed an agreement with Incus Investor ASA to acquire all the shares in Scana Propulsion AS, including subsidiaries Scana Volda AS and Scana Mar-El AS in Norway and three sales companies located in the United States, Singapore and China. Brunvoll Holding AS signed an option agreement for the acquisition of Scana Volda AS Real Estate…
Rolls-Royce to Propel New Danish Ferry
Danish ferry operator Mols-Linien has ordered a new passenger ferry from the Rauma Marine Constructions yard in Rauma, Finland. Rolls-Royce will provide the main propellers and propulsion control system to the new ship, which is planned to operate between mainland Denmark and the island of Bornholm, also known as the sunshine island of the Baltic Sea. Rolls-Royce will deliver two units of a Promas system which integrates the controllable pitch propeller, a propeller hub cap, a rudder with bulb and a twisted leading edge into one hydrodynamically optimized unit.
Bibby High Performance Carbon Fiber Couplings
High performance carbon fiber shaft couplings from Bibby Turboflex, part of the Altra Industrial Motion Group, can dramatically simplify the design, installation and maintenance of power transmission systems requiring long horizontal or vertical shafts, while also improving dynamic performance. The company’s floating shaft couplings are a favored solution for power transmission applications requiring the connection of widely separated shafts. The design compensates for angular…
Rolls-Royce, ZF Strengthen Propulsion Ties
An agreement between ZF Friedrichshafen AG and Rolls-Royce Power Systems will see the two companies collaborate even more closely on the development, marketing, sales and service of marine propulsion systems. The combination of MTU engines from Rolls-Royce Power Systems and marine transmissions from ZF have long been a match for many commercial ships and yachts. Now, the two companies plan to work together even more intensively to develop new technologies and products to help ensure clients are provided with fully optimized propulsion solutions.
ZF Marine Grows Presence in Louisiana
ZF Marine, the marine business unit of the global ZF Group, said it has secured a new location for its Gulf of Mexico/Inland Waterway sales and service operations. The company opened its wholly owned location in the greater New Orleans area in late 1996, the first satellite location outside of ZF’s North American marine headquarters. The location was established to provide close support for the commercial vessel industry in the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty years later, ZF Marine’s growing presence in the Inland Waterway…
Oscar B: Power in the River Currants
Since 1925 there has been some form of car ferry crossing of the lower Columbia River from Puget Island on the Washington side to Westport Slough on the Oregon side. In 1959 Wahkiakum County took over operation of the ferry and in 1962 had a steel-hulled ferry, named for the county, built by Nichols Boat Works at Hood River Oregon. This 12-car ferry served until 2015 when the county took delivery of a larger 23-car ferry. This ferry, named Oscar B, after Oscar Bergseng who served as ferry captain for 17 years. He died in 1985 after serving further years as ferry commissioner.
ROBA-DS Shaft Couplings Certified by DNV GL for Offshore
The compact and high performance ROBA-DS disk pack couplings by mayr power transmission have been certified by DNV GL. They ensure maximum possible operational and functional safety for users on the high seas. Whether in the drives of ship propellers, mobile platforms such as drilling platforms for oil and gas extraction, or also in tidal power plants – the areas of application for disk pack couplings in the maritime industry are diverse. For example, if the main drive of a ship propeller is an electric motor…
Two New SEA\LNG Partners
SEA\LNG, which works to accelerate the widespread adoption of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a marine fuel, has welcomed two new partners, each representing key aspects of the LNG maritime value chain: ABS and Keppel Offshore & Marine’s Gas Technology Development. The recent decision by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPS) to enforce the global 0.5 percent cap on the sulphur content of marine fuel by 2020 has significantly increased interest in LNG as a cost effective, safe and more environmentally friendly fuel.